The term ‘Scripture’ comes from the Latin word “scriptura,” meaning ‘written’ or ‘that which was written’. In the Middle Ages, monks infused the idea that scripture was “sacred” or “holy” writing. Hence, the term “scripture” is often used to designate religious writings. When we talk about Scripture in Christendom today, we are referring to The Holy Bible. This consists of the Hebrew Bible (The Old Testament) and Arabic and Greek writings related to the life and teachings of Jesus Christ, as well as the early Christian Church (The New Testament).

The Old Testament

The Tanakh, denoting the initial letters of the Torah (the authoritative book of Jewish law), Ketuvim (a collection of writings), and Nevi’im (comprising the major and minor prophets), represents the sacred scriptures of Judaism. The Tanakh is an acronym for three major sections of the Hebrew Bible: “T” for Torah, “N” for Nevi’im and “K” for Ketuvim. Together, these three sections make up the entirety of the Hebrew Bible.

While the Christian Old Testament is derived from the Jewish scriptures, its book order differs from that of the Tanakh (although the content remains the same), and the references to specific chapters and verses do not always align between the Old Testament and the Tanakh. Moreover, certain Jews make a distinction between the Torah and Nakh (Nevi’im and Ketuvim as distinct from the written Torah). Some Jews may refer to the entire Hebrew Bible, as Kitvei HaKodesh (Holy Scripture), or as the Torah (without specifically recognizing the aforementioned distinctions).

The Torah

The Torah, which consists of the first five books attributed to Moses. The physical written scroll version of the Torah is known as the Sefer Torah, meaning a “a sacred scroll”. It is also known as the Chumash (from the Hebrew word “Chamesh” meaning five); it is divided into 54 smaller portions known as “Parashiot”, each named for a prominent term within the tract. The name “Torah” is translated as “teaching” or “understanding”. The Torah represents the “t” in the word Tanakh.



Former Prophets (Nevi’im Rishonim): This includes four books - Joshua, Judges, Samuel (1 & 2 Samuel), and Kings (1 & 2 Kings).

Latter Prophets (Nevi’im Aharonim): This category consists of 15 books - Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and the Twelve Minor Prophets (Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi).


The Ketuvim section of the Tanakh, also known as the Writings or Hagiographa, contains a diverse collection of sacred writings. It consists of 11. These books include Psalms, Proverbs, Job, Song of Solomon, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, Esther, Daniel, Ezra-Nehemiah (considered one book), and Chronicles. Readings from the Nevi’im (Prophets) are done on a weekly basis in Jewish synagogues. These readings are known as “haftarah” and are thematically related to the respective Torah portion (parashah) of the week. The haftarah is read on Shabbat (Sabbath) after the completion of the Torah reading

Talmud & Halakah

The Talmud, also known as the Oral Law, and Halakah, which refers to Rabbinic rulings, are regarded as equivalent to holy scripture, such as the Torah. They are integral components of the the Jewish Holy Scriptures (Kitvei HaKodesh).

The New Testament

The New Testament is indeed a collection of religious texts central to Christianity, focusing on the life, teachings, death, and resurrection of Jesus of Nazareth. Like the Tanakh, it can be divided into the teachings of Jesus Christ (Gospels) and the early history of the Christian Church (Acts), Letters , and Revelation.

The New Testament was written by several authors over a period of about 60 years. Judeo-Christians gradually gathered these texts into one body, after the Crucifixion and Resurrection of the Lord Jesus Christ. The earliest documented and comprehensive compilation of the 27 books of the New Testament can be traced back to a letter composed by Athanasius, a 4th-century bishop of Alexandria. This letter, dated around 367 AD, contains a list that represents the earliest known record of the complete New Testament canon.


The four portraits of the Messiah of Israel as given by His messengers (Luke/Acts may be considered as a unit). The word “gospel” itself comes from the Old English “godspel,” which means “good news.” Godspel has its roots in ancient Greek culture, where it was used to describe a proclamation or announcement of significant news.

The concept of the gospel is rooted in the New Testament of the Christian Bible, particularly in the four Gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John written between approximately 70-100 AD. These books provide an account of the life, teachings, death, and resurrection of Jesus Christ.


The book of Acts, also known as “The Acts of the Apostles,” is the fifth book. It serves as a historical and theological continuation of the Gospel of Luke, as both books are attributed to the same author, traditionally believed to be Luke, the physician and companion of the apostle Paul.

Acts provides a detailed account of the early Christian Church, beginning with the events following the resurrection of Jesus Christ and continuing through the ministry of the apostles. The book covers a significant period of history, roughly from 30 AD to 62 AD, and documents the spread of Christianity from Jerusalem to various parts of the Roman Empire.


The Letters, also known as the Epistles, are a collection of writings found in the New Testament of the Christian Bible. They are letters or epistolary writings authored by various early Christian leaders, including the apostles and other prominent figures, to specific individuals, churches, or broader Christian communities. These letters were written to address theological issues, offer guidance, provide encouragement, correct errors, and reinforce Christian teachings.

There are 21 letters in the New Testament, which can be categorized into two main groups: Pauline Epistles and the General Epistles.


The Book of Revelation, also known as the Apocalypse of John, is the final book of the New Testament in the Christian Bible. It is a unique and highly symbolic piece of apocalyptic literature written by the apostle John, traditionally identified as the same author as the Gospel of John and the three Epistles of John.

Revelation is a complex and enigmatic work that has sparked a wide range of interpretations throughout history. It is written in the form of a letter, or more precisely, an apocalyptic letter, and is addressed to seven churches in Asia Minor (present-day Turkey) during the first century AD.

Interesting Artefacts

the Divine Word, who is doubly edged with the two testaments of the law and the gospel.

Tertullian. “Chapter XIV”. Against Marcion, Book III, c. 208 AD, Tertullian

The Complete History of the New Testament